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疑似某大型猪场外方人员对非洲猪瘟爆发和原因的分析

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发表于 1-11 10:40 |回复 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

ASF Outbreak in a Chinese Large Scale Pig Farm. Reasons and Reaction Possibilities

一个中国大型猪场非洲猪瘟爆发和原因分析

 

Jörg Krapoth

General Manager bei German Farm Consulting

•      BEI德国农场咨询公司总经理


ASF is all over in China. Officially there are 100 outbreaks.  German Farm Consulting was consulting to a farm where an outbreak has been in Nov 2018. Together with my colleagues Henrik Delfs I like to give a short summary.

非洲猪瘟已遍及全中国,官方报道100起疫情,我们公司正在服务的一个猪场在2018年11月份就发病的,我和我的同事Henrik Delf就此做一个简短的总结。

The large scale pig breeding farm (28 kg piglet production) is split into a purebred part and multiplication part. Until today only the purebred part has had clinical signs and positive PCR tests of an ASF outbreak. This ASF outbreak was not officially recognized and no measurements have been taken by the administration. The farm itself was able to isolate this outbreak into 5 buildings (1/3 of the farm) and since 8 weeks no further signs of ASF were detected.

这个超大型的猪场(生产28公斤体重的保育猪)分成纯繁区和扩繁区。直到今天,只有纯繁区域有临床症状和PCR检测阳性。猪场自己采取措施将疾病限定在5栋猪舍内(猪场的三分一),8周来未发现ASF进一步扩散的迹象。

In the following part we try to show step by step how easy such an outbreak can enter in a large scale farm and which measurements can be taken to control this outbreak.

下面我们将一步步展示这种爆发如何容易的进入超大型猪场以及如何控制这种爆发。


 On November 3rd 2018, 36 old sows of the purebred breeding part of the farm were sent to slaughter. They have been brought to the loading zone of the farm. The video surveillance of the loading zone has not worked at this day.

2018年11月3日,纯繁区淘汰了36头母猪,它们被赶进出猪台,当天出猪台的视频监控坏了。

The truck was cleaned and sent by the slaughter house. It was controlled in a distance of 500 m to the loading zone and was again disinfected. The product and the concentration and of the disinfection product is unknown. The truck has entered 90 min after disinfection into the loading zone.

卡车由屠宰场清洗后出发,在离猪场500米的地方再次消毒,使用的消毒液品种和深度未知,卡车消毒后90分钟,进入猪场装猪区。

2 farm employees have worked in the farm loading zone to bring the sows to the truck. 1 employee has been in direct contact with the truck and 2 employees have transported the sows from the farm building to the loading area.

2名猪场员工在出猪台赶猪上卡车,1名员工和卡车进行了直接接触,2名员工从猪舍里赶猪到售猪区。

The employees reentered the farm after the loading or made a pause. The boots have not been disinfected sufficiently.

员工买完猪后重新进入生产区工作或暂停工作,靴子没有经过充分消毒。

The employee who has been in direct contact with the truck, went back to work into the “North Gestation House”. He entered the building by dipping the boots into a disinfection solution.

直接接触卡车的员工回到生产区的“北怀孕舍”,他进入猪舍时靴子在消毒盆里踏了一下。

On November 8th one sow in the North Gestation House, pen 16, died. This is the building where the farm employee who has had contact with the truck in the loading zone has entered after leaving the loading zone.

11月8日,北怀孕舍16#栏的1头母猪死亡,这栋舍就是那个从出猪台回来的员工进入的猪舍。

On Nov. 10th twos sows has had an abortion in the North Gestation House, pen 16, and they have been removed to the “North Mating House”.

11月10日,北怀孕舍16#栏2头母猪流产,然后被赶进北配种舍。

On Nov. 11th two other sows have had an abortion in pen 16 of the North Gestation House.

11月11日,北怀孕舍16#栏另外2头母猪流产。

On Nov. 12th one abortion has been in pen 16 of the North Gestation House and one abortion has taken place in the North Mating House. The sows which have had an abortion at Nov 10th in the North Gestation House have been moved to this house.

11月12日,北怀孕舍16#栏1头母猪流产,北配种舍1头母猪流产,10日北怀孕舍流产的母猪已转入本栋猪舍。

On Nov. 13th one sow died in the North Gestation House and two in the North Mating House. The herd veterinarian took blood samples to test for PRRS. Now PRRS have been found but two samples have been positive for ASF. The result for ASF was confirmed with a second PCR test.

11月13日北怀孕舍死亡1头母猪,北配种舍死亡2头母猪,猪场兽医采血检测了篮耳病,测到了蓝耳病但有2个样本非洲猪瘟阳性,非洲猪瘟阳性的样本,进行了第二次检测确认。

On Nov. 14th one sow in the North Mating House and 2 sows in the North Gestation House died. ASF was confirmed by PCR Test.

11月14日,北配种舍1头母猪和北怀孕舍2头母猪死亡,PCR检测证实为非洲猪瘟。

On Nov. 15th additional sows in the North Mating House died. Up to this date 38 pigs has been positive tested for ASF and by PCR confirmed.

11月15日,北配种舍又有母猪死讯,至此已测到38头非洲猪瘟PCR阳性。

The West Farrowing House of this unit was just weaned before the outbreak. So no sows has been in but 490 piglets,. This piglets stayed neg. for ASF until now.

此单元的西分娩舍在疾病爆发前刚刚断奶,因此只有仔猪没有母猪,检测ASF阴性。

On Nov. 17th one additional sow died in the East Farrowing House. All 201 sows of the South Mating House were sent to slaughter without any testing. Some of the sows have had high temperature; anorexia.

11月17日东分娩舍死亡1头母猪,南配种间的201头母猪未经过检测,全部淘汰,其中有些母猪已发烧、厌食。

On Nov.18th 7 sows have been tested positive for ASF in the North Mating House. In The Gilt House one gilt was found with suspicious symptoms. All gilt in the house have been tested by PCR but until now no gilt in this house have been positive on ASF.

11月18日,北配种舍检测出7头母猪ASF阳性,后备舍也有1头出现疑似症状,所有后备采血检测,没有阳性。

The North Mating House has been emptied. 41 suspicious sows and another 152 sows out of this building were sent to slaughter.

北配种舍清空,41头出现临床症状的母猪和另外152头母猪被淘汰送往屠宰场。

All sows of the South Gestation House were sent also to slaughter. They have not shown symptoms and have not been PCR tested.

南怀孕舍的所有母猪也被淘汰,猪群没有临床症状,也没有检测。

On Nov 20th all 70 remaining sows in the North Gestation House were positive tested for ASF and killed.

11月20日,北怀孕舍剩下的70头母猪被检测到ASF阳性,全部扑杀。

All positive tested animals out of all buildings have been killed and buried with disinfections. No positive tested animal were sent to slaughter or were brought outside of the farm.

所有检测阳性的猪只均被扑杀,消毒深埋,检测阴性的猪被送往屠宰场或转出猪场。

On Nov 21st and 22nd all empty houses have been disinfected several time as the have been, before cleaning.

11月21日和22日,所有清空的猪舍在清洗前进行了数次消毒。

On Nov. 23rd 7 sows in the East Farrowing House have been tested positive for ASF and have been killed. The remaining 17 sows without any symptoms have been slaughtered.

11月23日,东分娩舍7头母猪检测到ASF阳性被扑杀,其余没有任何症状的17头母猪被淘汰。

On Nov. 25th there have been found 2 positive sows and one litter of piglets in the East Farrowing House. The positive tested sows where killed, the sows without symptoms have been slaughtered. All 1.335 piglets have been killed.

11月25日,东分娩舍检测到2头母猪和1窝仔猪阳性,阳性母猪扑杀,其它母猪淘汰,1335头仔猪扑杀。

All emptied houses have been disinfected immediately several times, before cleaning, during cleaning and after cleaning. The manure has stayed in the building for 3 weeks. The Multiplication Unit of the farm, the Gilt House and the inherd A.I. Stud. were completely isolated and is remaining negative.

所有清空猪舍立即进行数次消毒,在清洗前、中、后均消毒,猪粪留在舍内3周,猪场的扩繁区、后备舍、公猪站进行严格隔离并保持阴性。

All suspicious animals are tested by PCR tests. The farm stuff is strictly linked to the different buildings and must change clothes if they leave their working place. They do not leave the farm.

所有可疑的猪只要经PCR检测,所有的用具严格固定猪舍,员工进不同的猪舍要换衣服。全员封场。

Up to today, the 4th of January 2019, there have been no further positive PCR tests for ASF and no further suspicious animal in the farm.

至今日,2019年1月4日,猪场未再检测出PCR阳性,也没有出现新的临床症状。

Our conclusion out of this outbreak in our customer farm is:

关于这个客户的结论



•      As far as we know, ASF is transferred by direct contact

•      据我们所知,ASF是直接接触传播的。

•      The only “pig” contact this farm has is by bringing in gilts. In the gilt herd and in the gilt house there has been no positive animal

•      这个猪场唯一有猪接触猪的机会是引进后备母猪,在后备母猪群和猪舍内均未检出阳性。

•      The outbreak was in a building in the center of the farm. We consider that this was not made by rats and mice or insects. It was another contact

•      最先爆发的猪舍在猪场的中心,我们想这不是老鼠、昆虫带进来的,是其它接触。

•      The contamination time of ASF fits very well into the scenario that ASF has made in the farm, beginning with the sow transport, ending in the farrowing house.

•      ASF的发生时间非常符合ASF在农场发生的场景,从母猪运输开始到分娩结束。

•      That means, the chain of rules was broken several times: the truck was not cleaned and disinfected, the control was not okay, the disinfection on the farm was made with the wrong disinfectant, the wrong dosage and with not sufficient application time, the employee has not reentered the farm by taking a shower and changing clothes, the boot disinfection in the building has not worked because of too much dirt or wrong disinfectant, or..

•      这意味着规则的链条数次被打破:卡车没有被清洗和消毒,车辆控制做的不好,猪场用了错误的消毒剂且剂量和停留时间不足,员工重新进入猪舍没有充分淋浴和更衣,靴子消毒也不起作用,因为太脏且消毒剂不对,等等。

•      All disinfection strategies have not worked, Disinfection was seen as costs and not as protection. So non proved disinfectants has been used in wrong dosage and in wrong applications

•       所有的消毒策略没有起作用,消毒被认为是成本而不是防护,未经证实的消毒剂使用剂量和方法均错误。

•      The proved methods and products to disinfect in the right way would have cost 50.000 € per year. By using the wrong disinfection procedures and the non-proved products in the wrong dosage, 20.000 €, = 1.650 € per month, have been saved.

•       证明有效的消毒剂和方式,每年花费50.000 €,错误的消毒剂不足的剂量下每年花费20.000 €,每月节省1.650 €。

•      The outbreak itself was limited to a part of the farm but the total costs are around 1 Million Dollars.

•      仅限猪场疾病爆发的部分的损失大约100万美元。

•      Our separation of the farm in subunits and in individual buildings has worked well and was respected by the employees.

•      我们把猪场分成小单元和独立的栋效果很好,员工反映良好。

•      The herd Veterinarian has reacted quick and appropriate.

•      猪群兽医反映迅速而正确。

•      In House PCR tests have shown clear advantages in the reaction time.

•      内部PCR检测在反应时间上有明显优势。

The main conclusion is, that rules do not help if there are too much and if the employees do not understand them and do not applique them. Even a control by video shows weakness.  It is much better to think about strategies to avoid contact with infectious things.

主要结论:如果规定太多,员工不能充分理解,也不能执行这些规定,那个这些规定对猪场没有帮助,视频监控也有弱点,最好的办法是在策略上减少对外的直接接触。

So we start to change many things again:

我们又开始做更多的改变



•      An analyze has shown that the contact of the farm to the outside by feed trucks, pig trucks, semen deliveries and other good deliveries can be brought done by 95%

•      分析表明,通过饲料车、猪车、精液运输和其它物资供应占总接触量的95%

•      The rest 5% can be controlled much better

•      剩余的5%更好控制

•      Feed is now delivered in big trucks to the farm and is taken over into in-farm trucks

•      饲料现在用大卡车运到猪场,然后转到猪场的小车上

•      Pig deliveries are made now in big loads with own trucks which reload these pigs to other trucks some miles away from the farm. They are than cleaned and disinfected and return only after 1 night to the farm.

•      卖猪现在用大的出猪台,自己的车辆拉到数公里外与其它的卡车对接,车辆冲洗、消毒后,只有隔离1晚才能返回猪场装猪

•      A parking place for the trucks with cleaning and disinfection has been built

•      修建了用于卡车清洗消毒的消毒站

•      Semen is delivered only 3 times per week.

•      精液每周运送3次

•      Feed is bought now from outside. It must be in pellets and the delivering company must insure that the rear material do not come out of ASF areas.

•      饲料由外面采购,要求必须是颗粒料,运输公司必须保证原料不是从疫区来的

•      The disinfection protocol is overworked

•      消毒程序得到不厌其烦的严格执行

•      The control of rats and mice will be done by a specialist company

•      由专业的灭鼠公司控制老鼠

•      A handbook will be rewritten

•      重新修改员工手册

As the outbreak of ASF was limited only on one part of the farm, the costs have been around 1 Million Dollar. Better strategies and the use of proven materials in the right dosages would have cost only 20.000 Dollar more per year.

由于ASF只爆发在猪场的其中一个区域,损失约100万美元,更好的策略和正确使用经过验证的材料每年只多花费20000美元。

来源:大畜牧

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